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Carbon Dioxide Emissions
What are "Carbon Dioxide Emissions"?
"Carbon Dioxide Emissions," also referred to as "CO2 Emissions and "Carbon Emissions" are one of the six major greenhouse gas emissions that most scientists and climatologists state are the primary reasons why the earth's climate is; warming/cooling/changing.
Technically speaking, the correct term is "Carbon Dioxide Emissions" and NOT "Carbon Emissions." In today's fast-paced news world and need to get information out quickly, the term Carbon Dioxide Emissions has been shortened to "Carbon Emissions."
to the EPA, Carbon
simply "CO2," are generated in a number of ways. Carbon
are produced naturally through the carbon cycle and through human activities
like the burning of fossil fuels.
Natural sources of CO2 occur within the carbon cycle where billions of tons of atmospheric CO2 are removed from the atmosphere by oceans and growing plants, also known as ‘sinks,’ and are emitted back into the atmosphere annually through natural processes also known as ‘sources.’ When in balance, the total Carbon Dioxide Emissions and removals from the entire carbon cycle are roughly equal.
Since the Industrial Revolution in the 1700’s, when atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide were 280 ppm, human activities - also referred to as "anthropogenic" - including the use and burning of fossil fuels including oil, coal and gas, as well as deforestation, have increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere to 390 ppm.
In 2005, global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxides were 35% higher than they were before the Industrial Revolution.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions are responsible for about 80% of the problems related to Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
The six anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions now regulated by the EPA include;
methane (and Biomethane)
nitrogen oxides & nitrous oxide
that will be significantly reduced or eliminated via the global agreements under the Kyoto Protocol and new legislation in the U.S. under the pending "Cap and Trade" regulations in an effort to prevent climate change.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Since the year 1750
|Total US CO2 since 1750 (cubic feet)|
The carbon clock tracks total carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons since 1750.
Since 1750, humans have emitted over 5 trillion pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Roughly half of this has ended up in the oceans where it is beginning to damage the coral reefs. The other half is still in the atmosphere and causing global warming. Each pound of CO2 takes up as much space as a 500 pound person.
The formula (which should be good for a year or two) is:
C(t) = 2.58 ×1012 + 1240×t, where t is seconds since the start of 2007.
C is tonnes (metric tons) of carbon dioxide emissions.
2205 x C gives pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.
That comes to over 43 billion tons/year or over 86 trillion pounds/year.
Carbon dioxide (2) = 1 carbon atom with 2 oxygen atoms.
Carbon has relative weight 12 and Oxygen 16.
So it takes only 12 pounds of carbon to make 12+16+16 = 44 pounds of CO2.
Running on "green fuel" such as Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, Synthesis Gas or natural gas, our CHP Systems are the greenest "clean power generation" systems available as they generate no new greenhouse gas emissions or other hazardous air pollutants.
Our clean power generation systems are a superior "micro-grid" and demand side management solution for data centers, hospitals, universities, municipal utility districts and new real estate developments/subdivisions seeking "net zero energy" solutions.
Clean Power Generation Solutions
CHP Systems (Cogeneration and Trigeneration) Plants
Have Very High Efficiencies, Low Fuel Costs & Ultra- Low Emissions
The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional
Selective Catalytic Reduction system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."
The Effective Heat Rate of the CHP
System below is
4100 btu/kW with a Net System Efficiency of 92%.
CHP Systems may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions.
Our Emissions Abatement solutions reduce Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect" which means our CHP Systems energy systems can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!
Our CHP Systems - operating in either cogeneration or trigeneration configuration, may be the optimum power and energy solution for customers wanting increased power reliability and decreased energy and environmental costs.
A few of the clients and markets that may benefit from our CHP Systems include the following:
Colleges & Universities
District Heating & Cooling plants
Food Processing Plants
Government Buildings and Facilities
Office Buildings / Campuses
What is a Renewable Energy Credit?
Energy Credit or "REC" represents 1 MW or 1,000 kWh's of electricity generated from renewable energy
resources which include: such as biofuels, biodiesel,
hydro power, solar,
waste heat recovery
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Reduces reliance on fossil fuels
Promotes renewable energy sources and
Allows purchasers of RECs to go clean.
Call/email us with Renewable
Energy Credit questions and join us in
"Changing the Way the World Makes and Uses Energy!" sm
What are Greenhouse Gas Emissions?
Gas Emissions are those
greenhouse gases that allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely and
contribute to the greenhouse effect, which many believe is the cause of global
warming. There are natural and man-made greenhouse gas emissions. The primary
greenhouse gases thought to be major contributors to global warming are; carbon
dioxide emissions (CO2), methane emissions (CH 4) and nitrogen
primary sources of greenhouse
gas emissions from manmade sources include; fossil-fueled power plants such
as natural gas power plants and coal fired power plants. Other sources of
greenhouse gas emissions linked to manmade causes include internal combustion
engines (fueled by gasoline and petroleum diesel) and deforestation.
people don't realize that as much as 25% of per cent of the carbon dioxide
emissions are naturally absorbed by the ocean and another 25% of the carbon
dioxide emissions are absorbed by our biosphere, such as trees, plants, soil,
etc. This leaves about 50% of the carbon dioxide emissions that are not absorbed
and remaining in our atmosphere. As previously stated, carbon dioxide emissions
are linked primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (power plants, cars, trucks,
etc.) and deforestation.
gas emissions have been on
the increase ever since the dawn of the industrial revolution.
What Are Greenhouse Gases?
Many chemical compounds found in the Earth’s atmosphere act as “greenhouse gases.” These gases allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. When sunlight strikes the Earth’s surface, some of it is reflected back towards space as infrared radiation (heat). Greenhouse gases absorb this infrared radiation and trap the heat in the atmosphere. Over time, the amount of energy sent from the sun to the Earth’s surface should be about the same as the amount of energy radiated back into space, leaving the temperature of the Earth’s surface roughly constant.
Why Are Atmospheric Levels of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increasing?
of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 25 percent since
large-scale industrialization began around 150 years ago (Figure 1). During the
past 20 years, about three-quarters of human-made carbon
dioxide emissions were from burning fossil fuels.
1. Trends in Atmospheric Concentrations and Anthropogenic Carbon
Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the atmosphere are naturally regulated by numerous processes collectively known as the “carbon cycle” (Figure 2). The movement (“flux”) of carbon between the atmosphere and the land and oceans is dominated by natural processes, such as plant photosynthesis. While these natural processes can absorb some of the net 6.1 billion metric tons of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions produced each year (measured in carbon equivalent terms), an estimated 3.2 billion metric tons is added to the atmosphere annually. The Earth’s positive imbalance between emissions and absorption results in the continuing growth in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
2. Global Carbon Cycle (Billion Metric Tons Carbon)
What Effect Do Greenhouse Gas Emissions Have on Climate Change?
the natural variability of the Earth’s climate, it is difficult to determine
the extent of change that humans cause. In computer-based models, rising
concentrations of greenhouse gases generally produce an increase in the average
temperature of the Earth. Rising temperatures may, in turn, produce changes in
weather, sea levels, and land use patterns, commonly referred to as “climate
generally suggest that the Earth’s climate has warmed over the past century
and that human activity affecting the atmosphere is likely an important driving
factor. A National Research Council study dated May 2001 stated, “Greenhouse
gases are accumulating in Earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activities,
causing surface air temperatures and sub-surface ocean temperatures to rise.
Temperatures are, in fact, rising. The changes observed over the last several
decades are likely mostly due to human activities, but we cannot rule out that
some significant part of these changes is also a reflection of natural
there is uncertainty in how the climate system varies naturally and reacts to
emissions of greenhouse gases. Making progress in reducing uncertainties in
projections of future climate will require better awareness and understanding of
the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the behavior of the
What Are the Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions?
the U.S., our greenhouse gas emissions come mostly from energy use. These are
driven largely by economic growth, fuel used for electricity generation, and
weather patterns affecting heating and cooling needs. Energy-related carbon
dioxide emissions, resulting from petroleum and natural gas, represent 82
percent of total U.S. human-made greenhouse gas emissions (Figure 3). The
connection between energy use and carbon dioxide emissions is explored in the
box on the reverse side (Figure 4).
3. U.S. Anthropogenic Greenhouse
Gas Emissions by Greenhouse Gas
2001 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent)
Figure 4. U.S. Primary Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2001
Another greenhouse gas, Biomethane, comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and gas operations, and agriculture; it represents 9 percent of total emissions. Nitrogen oxides (5 percent of total emissions), meanwhile, is emitted from burning fossil fuels and through the use of certain fertilizers and industrial processes. Human-made gases (2 percent of total emissions) are released as byproducts of industrial processes and through leakage.
What Is the Prospect for Future Carbon Dioxide Emissions?
carbon dioxide emissions are
expected to increase by 1.9 percent annually between 2001 and 2025 (Figure 5).
Much of the increase in these emissions is expected to occur in the developing
world where emerging economies, such as China and India, fuel economic
development with fossil energy. Developing countries’ emissions are expected
to grow above the world average at 2.7 percent annually between 2001 and 2025;
and surpass emissions of industrialized countries near 2018.
5. World Carbon
Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2001-2025
(Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent)
The U.S. produces about 25 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels; primarily because our economy is the largest in the world and we meet 85 percent of our energy needs through burning fossil fuels. The U.S. is projected to lower its carbon intensity by 25 percent from 2001 to 2025, and remain below the world average (Figure 6).
6: Carbon Intensity by Region, 2001-2025
Energy Production and Carbon Dioxide Emissions
For over one hundred years, energy and power production have been generated around the world through the burning of fossil fuels, including; fuel oil, coal, diesel, and natural gas. Over the past decade, environmental science and research has discovered and linked global warming, and global climate change to the carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. This has placed an increased need to reduce energy consumption and discover more environmentally friendly fuel sources.
Decentralized Energy is the opposite of "centralized energy." Decentralized Energy energy generates the power and energy that a residential, commercial or industrial customer needs, onsite. Examples of decentralized energy production are solar energy systems and solar trigeneration energy systems.
Today's electric utility industry was "born" in the 1930's, when fossil fuel prices were cheap, and the cost of wheeling the electricity via transmission power lines, was also cheap. "Central" power plants could be located hundreds of miles from the load centers, or cities, where the electricity was needed. These extreme inefficiencies and cheap fossil fuel prices have added a considerable economic and environmental burden to the consumers and the planet.
Centralized energy is found in the form of electric utility companies that generate power from "central" power plants. Central power plants are highly inefficient, averaging only 33% net system efficiency. This means that the power coming to your home or business - including the line losses and transmission inefficiencies of moving the power - has lost 75% to as much as 80% energy it started with at the "central" power plant. These losses and inefficiencies translate into significantly increased energy expenses by the residential and commercial consumers.
Decentralized Energy is the Best Way to Generate Clean and Green Energy!
How we make and distribute electricity is changing!
The electric power generation, transmission and distribution system (the electric "grid") is changing and evolving from the electric grid of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was inefficient, highly-polluting, very expensive and “dumb.”
The "old" way of generating and distributing energy resembles this slide:
The electric grid of the 21st century (see slide below) will be Decentralized, Smart, Efficient and provide "carbon free energy" and “pollution free power” to customers who remain on the electric grid. Some customers will choose to dis-connect from the grid entirely. (Electric grid represented by the small light blue circles in the slide below.)
Typical "central" power plants and the electric utility companies that own them will either be shut-down, closed or go out of business due to one or more of the following:
failed business model
inordinate expenses and high operating costs to run central power plants
utilities and their central power plants are inefficient and generate excessive pollution/emissions
continued reliance on fossil fuels to generate energy
Decentralized energy, carbon free energy, clean power generation and pollution free power technologies ARE the future - whether the utility giants recognize this fact or not. These green and sustainable energy technologies will reduce, and one day eliminate America's dependence on foreign oil - making America energy independent while reducing and eliminating Greenhouse Gas Emissions - and could mean the end of central power plants as well as the utility companies that own and operate them!
Replacing power plants that generate "brown" power from fossil fuels with renewable energy power plants such as Concentrated Solar Power plants, not only generates green power, but eliminates Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Hazardous Air Pollutants, while reducing the Earth's Fever and imports of foreign oil!
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
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